Iin observing the Universe surrounding us, we must not only consider atoms, molecules, cells, individuals, systems, words or concepts as autonomous and independent units but must always be aware that each of these units is at the same time a whole – composed of smaller parts – and part of a larger whole. In fact, they are holons forming a nidified hierarchical order known as a holarchy (Koestler, 1964). Following the concept of ‘Holon’, a Holarchy is defined as the hierarchy of orders created by Holons. Holarchy is thus defined as a hierarchy of self-regulating holons (Koestler, 1967, p. 103), which function according to the three laws of holarchies - which are also three laws of evolution in Systems Theory (Laszlo, 1972) - namely: (1) competition and/or cooperation (and/or co-opetition), ‘sideways’ with other holon/partons on the same level; (2) integration upwards, into the larger holon/parton on the level ‘above’; and (3) control and command of holon/partons on the level ‘below’ (Koestler, 1964, 1967, 1978).
A network of production organizations thus becomes either an orgonization or an orgonic network; both arrangements obey the strict laws that characterize holarchies. At the global level we are witnessing the constant and accelerated economic progress of mankind. It is natural to ask what activates and governs these phenomena. The answer is that they self-generate and selforganize within reticular holarchies and orgonic networks formed by production enterprises, or productive organizations (Mella, 2005).